Course Content; Curriculum Design; Curriculum Development; Females; Feminism; Higher Education; History Instruction; Sex Bias; Sex Fairness; Womens Education; Womens History; Womens Studies
Presented from a feminist perspective, the document describes five interactive phases of curricular revision. Each phase occupies a different level on a "broken pyramid" hierarchical structure representing different ways in which women are included in curriculum. In such a structure, winners are few and near the peak; losers many and nearer to the bottom. Examples from the study of history serve to describe the five phases. In phase 1, "womanless history" would be history that focuses not on the vast majority of the world's population (woman and nonwhite males), but rather on a privileged class of men in the western world. In phase 2, "women in history," historians focus on more women than phase 1, but only on a famous few. Phase 3 acknowledges more women than phases 1 and 2 but acknowledges women not as part of the norm, but as a problem for the scholar, the society, or the world of the powerful. Phase 4, "women as history," includes more women that the previous stages and explores all life beyond the public world of winning and losing, into private, invisible, and domestic spheres. Curriculum revision in phase 5, the hardest to achieve, redefines and reconstructs history to include women collectively, based on global imagery of self and society rather than on a winning-losing pyramid. The document concludes with hypothetical examples (told in storytelling format) of young women encountering these five interactive phases of curriculum development in five specific disciplines (English literature, psychology, biology, art history, and history). (LH)
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