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Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
This article provides some context for the unquestionable influence of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) on language learning, teaching, and assessment ten years after its publication. If a survey about the most relevant and controversial document in the field in the twenty-first century were to be carried out, the CEFR would most surely be the top one. The document itself has been translated into all European languages, and its scales are now available in more than 40 languages, including sign language. The CEFR levels and its scales have become currency in Europe and beyond, and its recommendations--having seduced governments and institutions--are slowly finding their way into everyday practice. The CEFR, however, is not a model of absolute perfection, and criticisms and challenges will also be reviewed and discussed.