A meta-analysis of 34 primary studies yielding 438 independent findings shows that 20 specific parenting practices, in combination, can account for as much as one-quarter (23.1%) of the variance in student achievement outcomes. Seven parenting practices, when combined, account for approximately one-sixth (16.3%) of the variance in student achievement. These positive parenting practices are: (1) educational aspirations and grade expectations; (2) parent engagement; (3) authoritative parenting; (4) autonomy support; (5) emotional support; (6) providing resources and learning experiences; and (7) specific parent participation activities in school. Socioeconomic status, grade level, and ethnicity are three moderator factors. Eight negative parenting practices, in combination, also account for 31.9% of the variance in student achievement and are linked to a student's lack of success. (Contains 1 table, 2 figures, and 220 references.) (Author/SLD)
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001).