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Reports - Research
At the time of independence from Britain in 1964, the educational system in Zambia was, as elsewhere in Africa, racially segregated and heavily biased against Africans. This paper briefly reviews the situation at independence before enumerating post-independence educational policy landmarks through both acts of Parliament and national development plans and related documents. It discusses successes and failures in program implementation as evidenced by internal and external efficiency criteria. Particularly the primary school system has expanded substantially, although there are few data about internal efficiency. Nevertheless, the young and growing population continues to put pressure on the system--a doubling of primary school places by the year 2000 would be necessary simply to maintain the present gross enrollment rates. High rates of unemployment, especially after completion of primary and secondary school, point to poor external efficiency. Other factors contributing to problems with the successful implementation of educational policies have been a poor economy, inadequate supply of teachers above the primary level, problems with curriculum relevance, and an entrenched debate about the merits of English language versus native language teaching. (Author)