Intended for college instructors interested in promoting and developing intellectual abilities in their students, this publication details the Perry and Toulmin models of cognitive development. The first section explains the Perry model of dualistic students, who are comfortable in a framework of absolute knowledge and unquestionable right and wrong answers, multiplistic students, who recognize multiple perspectives but are unable to evaluate and weigh them adequately, and relativistic students, who are comfortable questioning authority and see knowledge as relative to their own frames of reference. A second section suggests implications of this model for classroom instruction, followed by a section providing information on how to find out more about the Perry model. A fourth section looks at the Toulmin model of cognitive development, which is characterized by a six-step system of rational argumentation, and how the model may be applied in the classroom. A final section notes that relativistic students are, by definition, working within the Toulmin model, and suggests that academic study demands that students work on a relativistic level. (JC)
ERIC Digests; Perry Developmental Scheme; Toulmins Model
1 - Available on microfiche
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.