Center for International Education, 285 Hills House South, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 ($5.00)
Reports - Descriptive; Dissertations/Theses; Reports - Research
Techniques for applying Brazilian adult educator and political organizer Paulo Freire's theory of "conscientizacao" are discussed. Freire's pedagogy is designed to liberate both oppressor and oppressed from the victimization of the oppressive system through "conscientizacao" or consciousness raising. The term refers to the developmental processes in which an individual moves from magical to naive to critical social consciousness. The outcome of the process results in society's working together in the creation of new norms, rules, procedures, and policies. The book is comprised of five chapters. Chapter I provides background for Freire's pedagogy and describes the development of a code particularly applicable to nonformal educational programs devised to aid in establishing objectives, training methodologies, evaluating, and determining the relationship between changes in thought and changes in action. The second chapter provides two case studies. An experience with groups of rural Indians in Ecuador emphasizes how magical consciousness (when a group adapts or conforms fatalistically to a system) expresses itself, and an example from "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" illustrates movement from naive to critical consciousness. Chapter III details development of the code and compares Freire's concept with that of educational psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg's developmental stages. Chapter IV outlines the process used to develop and validate the code, and chapter V notes limitations of the study, and discusses a series of possible applications and a number of ethical considerations. (Author/KC)
2 - Available on microfiche
Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Center for International Education.