The author's purpose in this paper is to explain and illustrate four principles for designing learning environments within which even young children can acquire complex symbolic skills with relative ease. After discussing the principles themselves and the theoretical system out of which they emerged, the author considers an illustrative application of these principles to the problem of designing an actual learning environment. Four principles for designing clarifying environments are: (1) Perspectives Principle-one environment is more conducive to learning than another if it both permits and facilitates taking of more perspectives toward whatever is to be learned: (2) Autotelic Principle-one environment is more conducive to learning than another if the activities carried on within it are more autotelic; (3) Productive Principle- one environment is more conducive to learning than another if what is to be learned within it is more productive; (4) Personalization Principle- one environment is more conducive to learning than another if it is more responsive to learner activities and permits and facilitates the learner's taking a more reflexive view of himself as a learner. As an illustrative example of a clarifying environment, the author discusses the talking typewriter. (Author/CJ)
Preprint of a chapter to appear in David Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1968
1 - Available on microfiche
Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Learning Research and Development Center.
Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC.; Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.